Pre-Cambrian rocks underlie Lake Mburo area, with the rocks comprising of a mixture of Cenozoic Pleistocene to Recent rocks, wholly granitized–Granitoid and highly granitized rocks, and Karagwe – Ankolean system. Argillite rocks predominate but are more arenites and silty rocks, which are regularly, distributed as thin bands throughout the area. The area is predominated by ferrallitic soils which are mainly sandy loams and sandy clay loams.
Lake Mburo National park contains a wide variety of habitat types, which gives it a surprisingly high diversity of animals and plants for its size. The system is a unique habitat, which lies at the convergence zone of two biological zones. It supports globally threatened species of birds, supports two of the endangered cichlid fish species which have gone extinct in the main lakes and it is the only system in Uganda in which the Impala is found. The system also provides refuge to 22 species of Palaearctic and Afro-tropical migrant birds during adverse conditions. The wetland; Lake Mburo wetland system is of great socio-economic importance. It provides water to the communities for domestic use, livestock and wildlife. During the drought, the wetland system provides pasture and water for the local herds and is a source of fish and materials for crafts and grass for thatching. Give its location near the Mbarara-Masaka highway, makes the park easily accessible.
Like the rest of the Ankole-Southern climatic zone, Lake Mburo National Park has a tropical climate. It lies in a rain shadow area between Lake Victoria and the Rwenzori Mountains. The park has two marked seasons; the rain and dry seasons and receives a bi-modal low rainfall ranging between 500 and 1000 mm. But the rain patterns tend to be inconsistent and unreliable which leads to shortage of pastures thereby affecting the behaviour of wildlife, including birds, and creating demands on the park by local Pastoralists. Temperature ranges between 23 – 25 degrees Celsius. Evapotranspiration of areas northwest, north, and north east to east, ranges between 1450 – 1600 mm. However, areas south and southwest of this park experience a much lower evapotranspiration ranging between 1300 – 1450 mm.